Date: November 7th, 2010 Grade: Grade 12
Teacher Name: Class Of BOH4M Subject: Business
1. Topic-
The Elements of Organizing
2. Content-
Designing Jobs
- Job Specialization
- Benefits and limitations
- Alternatives

Grouping Jobs: Departmentalization

- Rationale for departmentalization
- Common bases

Establishing Reporting Relationships

- Chain of Command
- Narrow vs. Wide Spans
- Tall vs. Flat Organizations
- Determining the appropriate span

Distributing Authority

- The Delegation process
- Decentralization and centralization

Coordinating Activities

- The need for coordination
- Structural coordination techniques

Differentiating Between Positions

- Differences between line and staff
- Administrative Intensity
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
1.To teach our fellow classmates about the Basic Elements of Organization, preparing them for a test on the subject.
2.To present the class with a cohesive and thorough presentation that teaches them effectively.
3.To teach ourselves the Basic Elements of Organization, so that we will be prepared in future exams and tests.
4. Objectives-
5. Materials and Aids-
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

1.Overview of topics
2.The Elements of Organization

B. Development-

Designing Jobs

Job Design - the determination of an individual’s work-related responsibilities.

Specialization - the degree to which the overall task of the organization is broken down and divided into smaller component parts.

There are a variety of benefits and consequences associated with job specialization.

Alternatives to Job Specialization include:

Job Rotation
Job Enlargement
Job Enrichment
Job Characteristics Approach
Work Teams

Grouping Jobs: Departmentalization

Departmentalization - the grouping of jobs in accordance to some form of logical arrangement. The basis of all departmentalization revolves around the logic of planning (this is the rationale for departmentalization).

The Four Common Bases for Departmentalization Include:

Functional Departmentalization - groups together those who have jobs involving identical or similar activities.

Product Departmentalization - arranging of activities by products or product groups.

Customer Departmentalization - grouping of activities in order to respond to certain customers or customer groups.

Location Departmentalization - grouping of jobs on the basis of defined geographical sites or areas.

There are also alternative methods of departmentalization, including grouping by time and sequence.

Establishing Reporting Relationships

Chain of Command - A clear and distinct line of authority amongst the positions within an organization.

Unity of Command - Suggests that each person within an organization must have a clear reporting relationship to one and only one boss
Scalar Principle - Suggests that there must be a clear and unbroken line of authority that extends from the lowest position to the highest position in the organization.

Span of Management – the number of people who report to one particular manager.

Tall Management – a number of different levels of management, vast span of control.

Flat Management – few different levels of management, small span of control.

Determining the Appropriate Span

Large Organizations work well with a narrow structure.
Smaller Organizations work better with a wide structure.

Distributing Authority

Authority - power that has been legitimized by the organization.

Delegation - The process by which a manager assigns a portion of his or her total work to others, establishing a pattern of authority between a superior and his subordinates.

Reasons for Delegation – to enable managers to get more work done, as their subordinates complete excess work which takes up a manager's time.

The Delegation Process
1.Manager assigns task.
2.Subordinate is given authority to complete task.
3.Manager establishes accountability and subordinate accepts the obligation of the task.

Some parts of the delegation process may be implied.

Decentralization - The process of systematically delegating power and authority throughout the organization to middle and lower-level managers.

Factors Leading to:
Complex or uncertain external environments
Past history of decentralization
High quality of low-level managers

Centralization - The process of systematically retaining power and authority in the hands of higher-level managers.

Factors Leading to:
Costly decision making
Past history of centralization
Lack of quality in low-level managers

Coordinating Activities

Coordination - The process of linking the activities of the various departments of the organization.

Pooled Interdependence – units operate with little interaction.

Sequential Interdependence – output for one becomes input for other.

Reciprocal Interdependence – activities flow between both units.

Structural Coordination Techniques

Managerial Hierarchy - assign one manager in charge of interdependent departments or units.
Rules and Procedures – useful for handling routine procedures.
Liaison Roles – managers coordinate independent units by acting as a common point of contact.
Task Forces – a task force is developed, using one member from each department, and dissolves after their task is complete.
Integrating Departments – more permanent form of task force, with more authority and permanence.

Differentiating Between Positions

Line Position - position in the direct chain of command that is responsible for the achievement of an organization’s goals (high management)

Staff Position - position intended to provide expertise, advice, and support for line positions. (mid to low-level management)
Authority to Advise – Line manager can choose whether to seek or avoid input from the staff.
Compulsory Advice – Line managers must listen to advice but can choose to heed or ignore it.
Functional Authority – Formal or legitimate authority over activities related to the staff member’s speciality.

Administrative Intensity – degree to which managerial positions are concentrated in staff positions.

C. Practice-


D. Independent Practice-


E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-


F. Checking for understanding-


G. Closure-

This concludes our lesson on the Basic Elements of Organization!
7. Evaluation-
Multiple Choice Test

This Lesson Plan is available at (