1. Topic-
Phases of the Moon
 
2. Content-
- Why do seasons change?
- What are the different phases of the moon?
- What do the different phases look like?
- Why does it matter how the sun hits the moon?
 
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
At the end of the lesson, the students will know:
- The position and the motion of the Earth in relation to the sun causes night and day.
- Because the moon's orbit around the Earth, the moon appears to change its shape every night, but it looks the same again about every four weeks.
- Because the Earth is tilted on its axis as it orbits the sun, seasonal changes occur on Earth.
- Our Solar system includes different-sized plants, which are located at different distances from the sun.
 
4. Objectives-
S4E2: Standard

At the end of the lesson, the students will be able to:
- Explain the day/night cycle of the earth using a model.
- Explain the sequence of the phases of the moon.
- Demonstrate the revolution of the Earth around the sun and the earth's tilt to explain the seasonal changes.
- Describe their view of the Solar System in an essay using key words from the lesson. This essay will be shared with the class.
- Identify and label the Phases of the Moon.
- List the planets of the Solar System by name in order of the Sun.
- Create models that show how and why the moon looks different as it revolves around Earth
 
5. Materials and Aids-
- KWL chart

- Markers, flashlight, toothpicks, overhead projector or lamp, chart paper, rulers, packing material, 2-cm Styrofoam balls, 4cm Styrofoam balls, flat Sheets of form core

- Journals

- Pre-Assessment Quiz

- Newton's Apple's Video (phases of the moon)

- Science & Space Solar System 101

- Lesson assessment test

- Rubric

- Solar System Study Guide

- Text Book
 
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

- The students will be engaged in the solar system by being asked a series of question to determine their prior knowledge of the Solar system. These answers will be recorded on their KWL chart under the Know section.
o Why does the moon look different at different times of the month?
o The full moon always rises about the same time as the sun sets. Why?
o If the new moon is on the same side of the sun as Earth, why doesn't it block out the sun and create an eclipse?
o Do you know why we have daylight and nighttime hours?
o Do you feel the time of year/ season makes a difference in the activities you can participate in?
o What are the planets that surround the sun?
- Students will be given time to Think-Pair-Share for 10 minutes after which they will record the answers in their journals for 10 minutes.
- The students will take a pre-assessment quiz to determine their level of prior knowledge with on the solar system.
- The students will watch a video on Newton's Apple regarding the phases of the moon.
- The students will understand through active collaboration how the hours of daylight change during the year and what effect this has on activities during the seasons.
- The students after watching Newton's Apple video on the phases of the moon will work in small groups to create models that show how and why the moon looks different as it revolves around Earth. Each student will demonstrate their models to the class.
 

B. Development-

- The students will continue to explore the solar system by watching Science & Space Solar System101.
- After the video the students will work in small groups to explore the concepts of the solar system to explain the day/night cycle of the earth using a given image. Students are encouraged to work together using prior knowledge with the teacher serving as a facilitator and observer. Students will be asked probing questions to redirect their investigation as necessary.
- In small groups students will use their KWL chart to document what they Wonder.
- The students will after the concepts in the Solar System study guide have been introduced and discussed, prepare to use the vocabulary words to describe what they have experienced and learned concerning the Solar System in the learned side of their KWL chart.
 

C. Practice-

Students will elaborate on their understanding of the Solar System's concepts through selecting one of the given opportunities:
- They will interact in small groups or whole groups to collaborate or employ cooperative learning through interaction. Through this sharing of ideas, students will continue to gather different avenues of learning.
- Read their essay regarding the Solar System in small groups
- Modeling their phases of the moon
- Identifying the phases of the moon
 

D. Independent Practice-

- Use a K-W-L chart throughout the lesson to record their Know " Wonder " Learned.
- Actively participate in classroom discussion regarding the solar system.
- Observe students as they interact with a partner, whole and small group, and individually throughout the lesson's activities, to determine their level of understanding with the instructions being presented.
- Recall and correct their questions from the pretest as we progress through the lesson.
 

E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

- Present tests and reading materials in an oral format.
- Tests read to students.
- Utilize technology/computer to take notes.
- Provide copy of completed KWL chart.
 

F. Checking for understanding-

- Discuss input to the KWL chart as a class.
- Discuss answers to the pre-test / write on Smart-Board.
- Make sure students have the answers written down to study for the final test.
- Review student's journal at checkpoints for understanding.
- Discuss and interact in whole group, small group or with a partner throughout the lesson's activities, to determine their level of understanding of the material being presented.
 

G. Closure-

- Review the phases of the moon.
- Have student write a two paragraph essay on what they learned about the solar system.
- Entertain closing questions.
 
7. Evaluation-
Complete KWL chart on the solar system, know-wonder-learned..
- Written assessment on the lesson objectives.
- Rubric checks for correct science content, attractive science exhibits, and appropriate use of language to describe information in the written descriptions and oral explanation.
 
8. Teacher Reflection-
Teacher reflections
This was an interesting lesson to prepare. My concern is that it will not be interesting enough for whole the attention of the student's inquiring minds. All of my students will always receive the benefit of my planning to ensure they understand the lesson as though it was tailor made to their needs. I realize in some instances this may be a challenge, but with the proper lesson design it is a possible.
 

This Lesson Plan is available at (www.teacherjet.com)