1. Topic-
Volcanoes and When They Get Mad
2. Content-
Volcanic eruptions; erupted materials

Key vocabulary: lava, magma, vent, crust, conduit, base, ash cloud
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
The goal of this lesson is to further students' knowledge about volcanoes, what happens when they erupt, and the material inside volcanoes.
4. Objectives-
1. Students will be able to identify the main parts of a volcano.
2. Students will develop an understanding of how lava cools and hardens.
5. Materials and Aids-
Textbooks; "Identify Parts of a Volcano" worksheets; chocolate; marshmallows; microwave; microwaveable containers; plastic bowls; spoons; refrigerator
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

The teacher will engage students by reviewing what they have learned about volcanoes. The class will discuss the parts of a volcano and what they know about volcanic eruptions.

B. Development-

The teacher will show a short video on volcanoes. The students will see examples of volcanoes erupting, lava lakes, and how lava flows. The teacher will explain that today's lesson is going to focus on what happens after a volcano erupts and how lava hardens when it cools. The teacher will demonstrate the main activity that the students will be completing. The teacher will also explain directions and assignment guidelines during this time.

C. Practice-

Students will work in groups of 4-5 in order to complete the activity. They will be given an upside-down plastic bowl set in an aluminum tray, and marshmallows. The students will place the marshmallows on and around the bowl to represent rocks. The teacher will melt chocolate in a container for each group of students. The students will be given the container once it has cooled enough so that they can pour the chocolate over the upside-down bowl to simulate the flow of lava. Once they have completed this, their trays will be placed in the refrigerator.

D. Independent Practice-

Students will complete a worksheet in which they identify the parts of a volcano (vent, lava, conduit, magma, crust, base, ash cloud.) They will color the picture of the volcano based on what they know about each element.

E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

Students will work in groups and will be grouped according to ability so that each group has one or more advanced students that can assist struggling students or students with special needs. Students with special needs will also be given a word bank with their worksheet to help them in identifying the parts of the volcano. During the summative assessment, students with special needs will be given questions to answer with 1-3 sentences (depending on ability) rather than completing an entry in their science journal.

F. Checking for understanding-

Once the trays have cooled in the refrigerator, they will be given back to the groups for the students to inspect. The teacher will ask the students questions about what they observed, how the chocolate was similar to the lava, and how the chocolate changed forms from the beginning of the activity to the end.

G. Closure-

The teacher will show a short video that provides students with examples of hardened lava. After the video, the class will discuss how the process and end result was similar to the activity they did with chocolate and marshmallows. Once the activity/lesson is complete, each group will be allowed to break their chocolate-marshmallow bark into pieces so that they can eat it.
7. Evaluation-
Students' understanding will be assessed through writing. They will complete an entry in their science journals discussing the activity. They will be asked to write about two new pieces of information that they learned, what they found the most interesting, and to give a brief explanation of why the chocolate and marshmallows were used to simulate the lava and rock that spews from a volcanic eruption.

This Lesson Plan is available at (www.teacherjet.com)