1. Topic-
Weather and Temperature
2. Content-
Science Processes
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
1.Develop an understanding that scientific inquiry and reasoning involves observing, questioning, investigating, recording, and developing solutions to problems.
2.To review weather and learn about temperature through understanding the use of a thermometer and how it is read.
3.To research weather, specifically temperature, across the world as an introductory lesson into seasons, the Earth's tilt and rotation.
4. Objectives-
Michigan Grade Level Content Expectation Standards for Science:
S.IP.E.1 Inquiry involves generating questions, conducting investigations, and developing solutions to problems through reasoning and observation.

S.IP.03.11 Make purposeful observation of the natural world using the appropriate senses.
(What is the weather today? Looking outside to observe the current weather)
S.IP.03.12 Generate questions based on observations.
(They will be noticing the range of numbers because of C vs. F)
S.IP.03.13 Plan and conduct simple and fair investigations.
(Observing weather in native country and Unite States)
S.IP.03.14 Manipulate simple tools that aid observation and data collection (for example: hand lens, balance, ruler, meter stick, measuring cup, thermometer, spring scale, stop watch/timer).
S.IP.03.15 Make accurate measurements with appropriate units (centimeters, meters, Celsius, grams, seconds, minutes) for the measurement tool.
(Celsius vs. Fahrenheit)
S.IP.03.16 Construct simple charts and graphs from data and observations.
(Graphing the weather data in native country and United States)

National TESOL Standards for grades K-3:

Goal 2, Standard 1: To use English to achieve academically in all content areas: Students will use English to interact in the classroom
- requesting and providing clarification
- participating in full class, group, and pair discussions
- asking and answering questions
- requesting information and assistance
- elaborating and extending other people's ideas and words

5. Materials and Aids-
Total number of students = 20
Throwaway thermometers (20)
Thermometers (5)
Thermometer interactive picture (1)
Containers (15)
Bunsen Burners
Temperature Book (Spanish and English versions)
Computers (20)
Class Poster
Gathering information sheets (20)
Graphs (40)
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

The students will look outside the window and discuss their observations. Is it snowing or raining, cloudy or sunny, warm or cold? We will then open the widow and feel if it is warm or cold. Because it is December, it is more than likely going to be rather cold in Michigan. The students will then be posed with the question, "How do we know if something is warm or cold?"

B. Development-

Ask the students if anyone can define the word temperature (Spanish: temperature). Besides the air outside, what else can have temperature? Make a KWL class chart (Know, Want to Learn, Learned). In the "KNOW" section, write down the class definition of temperature and the list the students come up with of things that have temperature. Hold up a thermometer to the class. Tell them this is a thermometer (thermo-metro) and ask if anyone knows what it is used for. In the "want to learn" section of the chart, write "How to use and read a thermometer," and "temperatures around the world."
Tell the students, it is zero degrees outside, and it is thirty-two degrees outside. Then, ask "how can it be both?" On the elmo, project a picture of a thermometer. Ask the students if they know what the letter C means and the letter F and why there are two sets of numbers on the thermometer. Next, draw a line across the thermometer at 0°C and 32°F. This will show the students that it can be both zero and thirty-two. Tell the students that the thermometer is bilingual just like them. Explain the importance of labeling because if it is 32°C that is really hot but 32°F is cold. Just like in language, a word can have the same meaning but pronounced in two different ways, Spanish and English. Also explain how location determines whether or not Celsius or Fahrenheit is used (most countries use C) because different countries use different measuring systems. Later on in the lesson they are going to learn what their country uses. Explain that they will first practice using a thermometer and reading it, and then they are going to connect temperature to weather.

C. Practice-

Put students into groups of four. Each group will have a thermometer, three containers of different water temperatures, and four (one for each student) throwaway thermometers. They will take the temperature of all three containers, writing the temperature in both Celsius and Fahrenheit on their charts. With the throwaway thermometer, the students will take their own temperatures and record those as well. The students will notice that Celsius is always colder than Fahrenheit. As a whole class, the students will watch the thermometer measure the temperature of freezing water and boiling. They will learn that Celsius is 0° and the freezing point and 100° at the boiling point of water.

Thermometers are used to measure the air temperature outside. Now that the students know how to use one, they are going to apply their skills to weather in their home country.

D. Independent Practice-

Students will use computers to research the weather in their home country. Based on the temperature given they will determine if that number was measured in Celsius or Fahrenheit. On their own charts, the students are going to write down the temperature in both C and F so whichever system was not given to them, they will have to look at a thermometer to figure out. The students will use the computers to record this information for a week. Not only will they be writing their own countries temperature but they will also have to look at the classroom's outside thermometer to record the current temperature here in Michigan. The recording of temperatures will be in place of morning seat work. This activity is to prepare them for the weather unit and learning about seasons based on the Earth's tilt. By using the information they gathered, temperature here and temperature in their native country, the students will make a graph. At the bottom of the graph will be the days of the week and on the side will be temperature. The students will make a graph for Fahrenheit and another for Celsius. Each day of the week should have two bars, one for Michigan, and one for their home country. By looking at their charts they will notice if their country is experiencing a different season then Michigan or not.

Students will be assigned a mini project. They will need to go home, and find a cultural artifact of something important to them they can bring in and share. This artifact has to be something they like to do in their favorite temperature. They could bring in a toy, picture, piece of clothing, book, etc. However, what they bring in, they need to connect to where they are from so the class can learn a little about the student and their country. For example, my favorite temperature is when it is hot outside, like 80°F. I would probably bring in a picture of me and my family at our favorite beach. I would then share this picture with the class, tell them my favorite temperature, and explain my photo. "I brought in this picture because I love to go to the beach when it is 80°F outside. My family is a very important part of my life and I really enjoy spending time with them. In this picture, we are having fun together at Lake Michigan, our favorite beach. The beach is clean and the lake is always so blue and beautiful. My home is in Michigan and Lake Michigan is part of its Great Lakes which are really important to not only my state but also my country, because they account for most of our fresh water." I would then write that my favorite temperature is 80°F and write that in Celsius as well. (This record will go on a whole class chart for everyone to see.) When the students are presenting their two minute artifact and story, they could share the whole story in their first language and then retell it in English. It is always fun to hear students speak in different languages and this is an easy way to support bilingualism.

E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

1.Variety of Learning Styles
2.Key vocabulary words said in both Native Language and English
3.Connecting to students' home countries
4.Sharing culture

F. Checking for understanding-

To assess science concept:
The students will write in their science journals. On the first page will be a sentence that reads, "It is 40°F outside." Below the sentence is a picture of a thermometer and the students will color in the thermometer so that it reads the correct temperature. They will then write if this temperature means it is cold or hot outside. The next sentence will read, "It is 20°C outside." Once again, the students will have to color in the thermometer to read this temperature and then write if that means it is cold or hot outside. The next page will have a picture of a thermometer and the students will have to write the temperature it is showing in both °C and °F. At the bottom of the page they will write how to read a thermometer as if they had to explain it to someone else. They will be instructed to remember to not forget to explain the importance of labeling °C and °F. Finally, the students will write about a friend. They will look at the class chart, choose a friend's favorite temperature, write it and say if that temperature means it is hot or cold outside.

To assess language:
This assessment will be mostly completed through observation throughout the entire lesson. The students will be assessed in call core areas of speaking, reading, listening, and writing.

G. Closure-

Once it is clear the students have a strong understanding of temperature and how to use a thermometer, they will be ready to move further into the weather unit. This lesson, and its activities, was to prepare the students, introduce needed vocabulary, and teach an important weather instrument. During the final class discussion, the class will finish filling out the KWL chart. In the LEARNED section, the students will share what they learned. They should have learned about a thermometer, how to read it, and how to use it; the difference between Celsius and Fahrenheit; better definition of cold versus hot. To end this introductory lesson, the class will hear the book "Temperature" read to them, the English version of the book and the Spanish version.
7. Evaluation-
5.Level of understanding of newly learned science concepts
6.Ability to correctly use a thermometer

This Lesson Plan is available at (www.teacherjet.com)