1. Topic-
Germs
 
2. Content-
Where germs exist and how we can control the spread of them.

New Vocabulary:
Germs
Bacteria
Virus
Vaccine
 
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
1.Students will be familiar with scientific knowledge. They will understand that science involves collecting data and testing hypotheses.
2.Students understand scientific inquiry and the need to work as a team. All members will reach an individual conclusion and share their understanding to increase overall knowledge.
3.Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention as related to germs.
 
4. Objectives-
1.Students will be able to correctly name 4 of the 5 steps involved with scientific inquiry
2.Students will list four ways to prevent the spread of germs with 80% accuracy.
 
5. Materials and Aids-
20 petri dishes
5 swabs per group
Masking tape
Instruction sheet for experiment
Log Sheet (prepared by teacher)
Notebook paper
pencil
Disinfecting wipes
Soap
Sink
Germs, Germs, Germs by Melvin Berger
Video - "ID germs with Glogerm Kit" www.watchknow.org/Video.aspx?VideoID=27557&categoryID=773
 
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

1.Statement of goals and objectives to students
2.Begin discussion with the students by asking questions such as "What are germs," "Are there different kinds of germs," and "How can germs hurt us?" I will ask students to think about what they do when they are sick and what things they're parents ask them to do when they are ill (such as wash hands, tissues, coughing)
 

B. Development-

1. Introduce the students to the concept of scientific inquiry. Explain that they will be conducting an experiment on germs in order to (1) learn about how to stop the spread of germs and (2) practice the steps of scientific inquiry. Inform the students that the experiment will utilize the five steps and explain each step
- Problem " identifying a question in which an experiment can provide a conclusion
- Hypothesis " forming a theory of what we think will happen during the experiment
- Method " the steps taken during the experiment that will provide us with a conclusion (how we will gather data for the experiment)
- Observation " observing the experiment and collecting the data
- Conclusion " taking the data and comparing it against the hypothesis (determine why and how we got the results to the experiment.
 

C. Practice-

1. Read Germs, Germs, Germs, by melvin Berger.
2. Ask questions of students after reading the book - How small are germs? What are the two types of germs? Are all germs bad for us? How can we stop the spread of germs? Are germs everywhere?
3.Show the video "ID germs with Glogerm Kit"
4.Ask questions regarding video - Why did they use the glopaint? What happened in the experiment? What does this show us about germs and sneezing, coughing, ?
5.Break the video experiment down into the 5 steps of scientific inquiry
6.Explain experiment to be conducted by students.
 

D. Independent Practice-

During this independent time, the students will conduct an experiment within their groups. The purpose of the experiment is to use scientific inquiry to compare the amount of germs from washed and unwashed surfaces. They will hypothesize which Petri dish will have more germ growth. Students will observe the growth of the germs over a week. Each group will get four Petri dishes and swabs. The groups will be labeled as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Each Petri dish will be labeled with the group number and what the germ surface. The students will be instructed as follows:
1) The group should identify the problem or question to test: Will more germs grow from
clean areas or dirty areas?
2) One person washes his/her hands very well. One swab will be wiped over the inside of his palm, then gently wiped across the gel on the Petri dish and covered.
3) Another student with unwashed hands will wipe a swab across his palm and gently wipe the swab onto the gel in another Petri dish and cover it.
4) The group will then choose one other spot in the room (such as door knob, desk top, book, or pencil). They will first wipe the area with a swab and transfer the contents to the Petri dish. The students will then wipe down the same area with a disinfecting cloth, let it dry, and repeat the process with the swab.
5) The covered dishes are to be placed in a cool, dark area of the classroom.
6) Each group will prepare a hypothesis of what they think will happen and write it on
their log.
7) Every day at the beginning of class, the groups will observe their Petri dishes and write down their observations.
8) At the end of the week, the students will observe their dishes, determine which one has the most bacteria and determine if their hypothesis was correct. Each student will prepare a separate conclusion for their groups' experiment and turn it in with the group's log sheet.
 

E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

1.Gifted students should be separated and placed into different groups. This will allow them to help and lead the groups.
2.Any students with learning disabilities should be placed into a group with a gifted student.
3.LD's should be seated near the front during group time to make sure they are kept involved.
4.Students with behavioral issues should be separated from anyone that may cause them problems or antagonize them. During group time, make sure they are seated near the instructor or class aid.
5.ELL students should work with students they have a relationship with. This will help them with the language and help their comfort level when working with groups. If possible, provide the ELL student with any translations of the work. The book Germs, Germs, Germs is available in several other languages. If you are able to locate a copy, allow the student to review the book during group time.
 

F. Checking for understanding-

(This step will be done in the following class)
Students will discuss individual conclusions and will write up a group conclusion and present to the class.
 

G. Closure-

After students have finished with their Petri dishes and put them in a safe area, each group will tell the class the area from which they collected their germs. We will also review the steps (or method) taken during this experiment. At the end of the week, the groups will describe their Petri dishes. They will discuss their hypotheses and whether or not they were correct. The students will review their observations and individual conclusions. They will form a group conclusion and present their findings to the class (this last step will take a full class period).
 
7. Evaluation-
1.Students will turn in their individual conclusions as well their group conclusion for a grade.
2. Homework for night of experiment - students will write up a brief explanation of what they did during experiment.
3.Students will be graded on observed involvement in experiment and written conclusions.
 

This Lesson Plan is available at (www.teacherjet.com)