Subject: Earth's Ecology
1. Topic-
The States of Matter: How Can Water Be a Solid, Liquid, AND Gas?

Next Generation Science Standards:

2-PS1-1. Plan and conduct an investigation to describe and classify different kinds of materials by their observable properties.

2-PS1-3. Make observations to construct an evidence-based account of how an object made of a small set of pieces can be disassembled and made into a new object.

2-PS1-4. Construct an argument with evidence that some changes caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some cannot.
 
2. Content-
States of matter are the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on. Solid is the state in which matter maintains a fixed volume and shape; liquid is the
state in which matter maintains a fixed volume but adapts to the shape of its container; and gas is the state in which matter
expands to occupy whatever volume is available.

Solid water"”ice is frozen water. When water freezes, its molecules move farther apart, making ice less dense than water. This means that ice will be lighter than the same volume of water, and so ice will float in water. Water freezes at 0° Celsius, 32° Fahrenheit.

Liquid water is wet and fluid. This is the form of water with which we are most familiar. We use liquid water in many ways, including washing and drinking.

Water as a gas"”vapor is always present in the air around us. You cannot see it. When you boil water, the water changes from a liquid to a gas or water vapor. As some of the water vapor cools, we see it as a small cloud called steam. This cloud of steam is a miniversion of the clouds we see in the sky. At sea level, steam is formed at 100° Celsius, 212° Fahrenheit.

The water vapor attaches to small bits of dust in the air. It forms raindrops in warm temperatures. In cold temperatures, it freezes and forms snow or hail.

Key Vocabulary:

1. evaporation
Definition: The process by which a liquid becomes a gas. In the process of evaporation, heat from the sun causes some water from the ocean to turn into water vapor.
2. gas
"¨Definition: An airlike substance that expands to fill any space available"¨. Evaporated water becomes a gas.
3. liquid"¨
Definition: A substance that flows freely but remains at a constant volume, such as water or oil"¨. A liquid takes on the shape of its container.
4. solid"¨
Definition: Firm and stable in shape"¨. Ice is water in its solid state.
5. temperature"¨
Definition: The degree of heat present in a substance, object, or place"¨. When the temperature plunges to 0 Celsius (32 Fahrenheit), water can become ice.
 
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
At the end of this unit the students will be able to:
1. Distinguish the differences between the three states of water
2. Identify and elaborate upon the ways in which water changes
3. Examine the changes between the three states of water, record observations, and utilize evidence to support their predictions
 
4. Objectives-
1.Plan and conduct an investigation collaboratively to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence to answer a question. (2-PS1-1)
2. Different kinds of matter exist and many of them can be either solid or liquid, depending on temperature. Matter can be described and classified by its observable properties. (2-PS1-1)
3. Make observations (firsthand or from media) to construct an evidence-based account for natural phenomena. (2-PS1-3)
4. Events have causes that generate observable patterns. (2-PS1-4)
5. Scientists search for cause and effect relationships to explain natural events. (2-PS1-4)
 
5. Materials and Aids-
Water
Electric Tea Kettle
1/3 Liter of Crushed Ice per group
1 Funnel per group
1 Plastic Liter Bottle per group
1 Small Plastic Baggie per group
1 Rubber Band per group
1 Black Permanent Marker per group
1 Ruler per group
White Paper - 1 sheet per student
Crayons or Colored Pencils
 
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

1. Explain that one important way to classify objects is by their state of matter. Explain to students that they will be learning about the three main states of matter.
2. Spark curiosity by asking students: What do you think defines a solid? A Liquid? A gas?
2. Assess prior knowledge by asking students: - What are some different types of matter you have at home?
- Think about your most recent meal. What types of matter did you eat?
- How does a block of ice change from a solid to a liquid?
- Why does a puddle of water disappear or dry up?
- Why does a window get foggy when you breathe on it on a cold day but not on a warm day?
-What happens when you add coins to a jar of marbles and shake it up?
-What happens when you stir chocolate powder into a glass of milk?
- What happens when you stir salt into a pot of hot water?
 

B. Development-

(10 min)
1. To begin the lesson, fill an electric kettle with water and plug it in. Ask students to tell you what they think will happen when the kettle heats up. Have students watch the kettle as it heats, and ask them to tell you what they observe. Explain that steam is a form of water and that they are observing evaporation, the process by which a liquid becomes a gas. Write the words "steam" and "gas" on the board. Ask students to tell you what they know about water. Write their comments on the board for reinforcement.

2. Tell students that water has three states: liquid, solid, and gas. Show students the plastic liter bottle and tell them they will observe water changing into different states. Using effective modeling strategies, use the funnel to fill the bottle about one-third full with crushed ice. Place the baggie over the bottle top and seal it in place with a rubber band.
3. Measure the level of ice in the bottle with a ruler. Move through this part quickly before the ice melts, and ask a few students to confirm the measurement. Make sure that the class agrees with the accuracy of the measurement, then draw a line on the bottle that indicates the level of ice. Write the word "ice" next to that line. Think aloud to try and "figure out" whether you should write "solid," "liquid," or "gas" next to the ice level. Place the bottle in the sun or in a warm area of the classroom where students can observe it.
 

C. Practice-

(10 min)
1. Divide students into small groups. Give each group the materials needed to create their own demonstration (liter bottle, funnel, ice, marker, baggie, ruler).
2. Have students assist one another in funneling the ice into the water bottle, and carrying out the experiment as a group.
3. Encourage students to take 5 minutes to discuss with their group what they think will happen to the ice in the heat, and why.
 

D. Independent Practice-

(10 min)
1. Have students divide a sheet of paper in half. On the upper half, they will write a few sentences and draw a small picture predicting what they think will happen to the ice in the heat.
2. After about 30 minutes, ask students to look at the bottle and describe what they see. What has happened to the ice? What is happening in the bottle?
3.Ask each group to measure the water level in the bottle. Assign one member of the group to use the permanent marker to draw a line that indicates the new water level. Have them write the word "water" by that line, and ask the class whether they think they should write "solid," "liquid" or "gas."
 

E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

1. If students have trouble writing full sentences have them focus more on their detailed drawings or writing any key words they can.
2. If lesson is presented to Grades K-1, using a steam kettle may not be feasible. Use photos and/or videos to create discussion upon steam and gas.
3. If lesson is presented to Grades K-1, perform experiment in the front of class for all children to observe. Do not split into groups.
4. Make sure all vocabulary needed (including water, ice, and gas) is written on the board for students to copy. Assist as needed.
 

F. Checking for understanding-

(10 min)
1. Place the bottle in the warmth again and ask students to predict what they think will happen if the bottle stays there overnight. Have them write a few sentences on the lower half of the paper. They should also be encouraged to draw a picture of their prediction as well.
2. The following day have students observe the changes that occurred in the bottle. What has happened to the water level? Where did the water go? Point out the droplets of water that have formed in the baggie. How did the water get into the baggie?
3.Have students record what happened to the water level, and what they predict may have happened to the water.
 

G. Closure-

(5 min)
1. Talk about temperature and how it helps water change states.
2. Give a quick overview of the states of water to bring all the information together and successfully conclude the lesson.
 
7. Evaluation-
(5 min)
1. Have students share their observations and talk about the accuracy of their predictions in a class discussion. Ask students to tell you about the different forms of water and to describe how water changes from one state to another.

2. Have students hand in their predictions to assess understanding.
 

This Lesson Plan is available at (www.teacherjet.com)