Subject: Instructional Technique
1. Topic-
Provide Feedback to Team Members.

Lesson Time:
Introduction / Conclusion: 10 minutes
In-Class Activity: 20 minutes
Interactive Lecture: 30 minutes
2. Content-

a. Given:
(1) Supervision
(2) Assistance as required

b. Denied: N/A

c. Environmental: Classroom or training area large enough to accommodate the entire group.


(5 min) TP 1: Have the cadets' brainstorm and prepare a list of times when feedback should be provided.

(10 min) TP 2: Explain the principles of effective feedback, to include:
a. Frequent
b. Accurate
c. Specific
d. Timely

(10 min) TP 3: Explain the ground rules for providing feedback, to include:
a. Focusing on what is observed
b. Focusing on behavior
c. Keeping it neutral
d. Using it to inform
e. Making it supportive
f. Keeping it simple

(10 min) TP 4:
PART 1 - Explain the steps for providing feedback, to include:
a. Planning what to say
b. Providing examples of behaviors
c. Allowing time for feedback
d. Motivating
e. Setting a timeline for action and follow-up

PART 2 - Explain the steps for receiving feedback, to include:
a) Seeing each feedback session as a learning opportunity
b) Actively listening to the sender's ideas
c) Asking for more information if the ideas are not understood
d) Being honest about how the feedback is affecting one's emotions
e) Remaining open-minded about future learning opportunities

(15 min) TP 5: Using scenarios have the cadets' practice providing feedback to team members.
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
The cadet shall:
a. recognize when feedback must be provided
b. provide feedback
4. Objectives-
The cadet should be able to demonstrate proficient use of feedback skills in TP 5, and also during their cadet career as they get more leadership roles / experience.
5. Materials and Aids-
- Presentation aids (e.g. whiteboard / flip chart / OHP / multimedia projector) appropriate for the classroom / training area
- Effective Feedback handout
- Scenarios
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

The purpose of this lesson is to prepare you with the skills to give proper feedback to cadets for events involving misbehavior (such as insubordination) and to provide advice (such as uniform inspections). By the end of this lesson you should know how to provide proper feedback.

B. Development-

Teaching Point 1 "� Brainstorming (5 minutes):

1. Give each cadet a piece of paper and pencil.

2. Have the cadets' brainstorm and prepare a list of times when feedback should be provided. Should take about 2 "� 3 minutes.

3. Ask the cadets for their thoughts & opinions and record them down on the Whiteboard / chart paper.

Teaching Point 2 "� Explain the principles of effective feedback (10 minutes):

1. Frequent: Provide frequent feedback for the cadets. The only way the cadets are going to learn is if they are given feedback regularly, remember, some the cadets have just joined and don't know how to do anything "� if they are doing something wrong, don't be afraid to let them know! As for the older cadets, they should already know what's wrong but the regular feedback would encourage them to change their behavior to avoid being told repeatedly.

2. Accurate: Be accurate for your feedback. Don't go on a rant about how the building has to look spotless or it will fall apart, because they might feel anxious now about their abilities to keep the whole building clean, or they will know you are over exaggerating to prove a point and tune you out.

3. Specific: This also relates to being accurate. Don't tell them "oh your uniform could be better"� instead be specific about which uniform part should be up to standard.

4. Timely: Timing is everything. Be appropriate, if their uniform needs work on, then tell them during inspection. If the galley floor could be mopped better, identify their mistake and tell them how to fix it, the longer you leave it uncorrected, the longer the cadet will do the same thing they are doing and thinking it's the right way.

Teaching Point 3 "� Explain the ground rules for providing feedback (10 minutes):

The purpose of performance feedback is to let team members know how they are doing and whether they are meeting your performance expectations. Performance feedback doesn't just mean telling people when they do something wrong. You want to make sure that you recognize when team members meet their commitments or do something great, as well as when they are not meeting your expectations.

In fact, telling people they are doing a good job is easy. You can recognize them with a simple thank-you. You can write them a nice e-mail or a memo. You can also praise a team member in front of others so that the feedback gets the added benefit of broader recognition.

On the other hand, when team members don't meet your expectations you should also provide performance feedback. It would usually not be appropriate to do this in front of others, or copy others into the feedback. Constructive performance feedback is typically better handled though a one-on-one meeting. When this type of conversation is appropriate, you can use the following steps

- Plan. This helps you develop a framework for providing effective feedback. You should think ahead of time about the behavior that should be highlighted and how you can help the employee improve.

- Provide examples. Vague criticism fosters anxiety. Tangible examples are required to highlight the feedback. You do not need to provide dozens of examples. Hopefully, you can make the point with a couple representative observations. If you don't have examples, you cannot provide the feedback.

- Motivate. Use motivational techniques in the discussion. The employee is bound to be disappointed by the feedback. Look for opportunities to build the morale of the team member as well, so that he or she will be eager to improve.

- Sandwich. The project manager should start the session with positive comments, then get to the feedback and finish with positive, motivating comments. Many people think this is trite and perhaps obvious. However, it is still a valid way to proceed. If you can find some positive things to say, open and close the discussion by mentioning them.

- Allow time for feedback. The process needs to be a dialogue between the project manager and the team member. So, seek feedback from the team member and allow him or her to agree, disagree or provide his / her perspective. It is possible that he or she may have mitigating factors that you were not previously aware of.

- Set a timeframe for action and follow-up. The project manager should document any action items, circulate them to the team member and ensure that they are completed. Before the meeting is over, the project manager and team member should also agree on a follow-up timeframe to check progress.

This type of discussion would be very appropriate for a project manager to have with a team member. If this type of feedback does not change the person's behavior, you can have a second, similar discussion. However, ultimately if there are performance problems that cannot be corrected, the situation will need to be brought to the attention of the functional manager.

Teaching Point 4 "� Explain the steps for providing & receiving feedback (minutes 10):

In working through the appraisal process, appraisers and appraisees are continually receiving and giving feedback. Whether communicated explicitly (through oral or written language) or implicitly (through gestures or tone of voice), feedback conveys information about behaviors and practices and offers an evaluation of their quality. Although it is easy to take feedback personally, participants in the process should strive to perceive all feedback as a learning opportunity. Feedback can reinforce existing strengths, keep goal-directed behavior on course, clarify the effects of behavior, and increase the recipient's ability to detect and remedy errors independently. Both appraisers and appraisees can use the tips below to learn to receive and give feedback more effectively.

1. Receiving Feedback Effectively:

- Listen to the feedback given. This means not interrupting. Hear the person out, and listen to what they are really saying, not what you assume they are going say. You can absorb more information if you are concentrating on listening and understanding than if you are being defensive and focusing on your response.

- Be aware of your nonverbal responses. Your body language and tone of voice can speak louder than words. Looking distracted and bored sends a negative message and can create unnecessary barriers. Attentiveness, on the other hand, indicates that you value what someone has to say, and puts both of you at ease.

- Be open. This means being receptive to new ideas and different opinions. Often, there is more than one way of doing something, and other people may have a completely different viewpoint on a topic. Remain open, and you may learn something worthwhile.

- Understand the message. Make sure you understand what is being said to you, especially before responding to the feedback. Ask questions for clarification, if necessary. Listen actively by repeating key points so that you know you have interpreted the feedback correctly. In a group environment, ask for others' feedback before responding. As well, when possible, be explicit beforehand about the kind of feedback you are seeking, so you are not taken by surprise.

- Reflect and decide what to do. Assess the value of the feedback and the consequences of using it or ignoring it, and then decide what you want to do. Your response is your choice. If, after careful consideration, you decide that you disagree with the feedback, you might ask for a second opinion from someone else.

- Follow up. There are many ways to follow up on feedback. Sometimes, your follow-up will simply be to implement the suggestions you"�ve been given. In other situations, you might want to set up another meeting to discuss the feedback or to submit revised work.

2. Giving Effective Feedback

- Prioritize your ideas and understand their value. Limit your feedback to the most important issues. Consider the potential value of the feedback to the receiver. Consider how you yourself would respond to such feedback (would you be able to act on it?). Remember also that receiving too much feedback at one time can be overwhelming for the recipient.

- Concentrate on the behavior, not the person. One strategy is to open by stating the behavior in question, then to describe how you feel about it, and to end by stating what you want. This model enables you to avoid sounding accusatory and to focus on behaviors rather than on your assumptions about or interpretations of the behaviors
Example: "I haven't seen you at our superintendency meetings lately. I'm worried that you are missing important information. Can we meet soon to discuss it?"� Instead of: "You obviously don't think our superintendency meetings are important!"�

- Balance the content. Use the "sandwich approach"�. Begin by providing comments on specific strengths, to give reinforcement and identify things the recipient should keep doing. Then identify specific areas for improvement and ways to make changes. Conclude with a positive comment. This model helps to bolster the recipient's confidence and keeps weaker areas in perspective.
Example: "Your presentation was great. You made good eye contact and were well prepared. You were a little hard to hear at the back of the room, but with some practice you can overcome this. Keep up the good work!"� Instead of: "You didn't speak loudly enough, but otherwise the presentation went well."�

- Be specific. Avoid general comments that may be of limited use to the receiver. Try to include examples to illustrate your statements. Remember, too, that offering alternatives rather than just giving advice allows the receiver to decide what to do with your feedback.

- Be realistic. Feedback should focus on what can be changed. It is frustrating for recipients to get comments on things over which they have no control. Also, remember to avoid using the words "always"� and "never"�. People's behavior is rarely that consistent.

- Own the feedback. When offering evaluative comments, use the pronoun "I"� rather than "they"� or "one"�, which would imply that your opinion is universally agreed on. Remember that the feedback you provide is merely your opinion.

- Be timely. Find an appropriate time to communicate your feedback. Being prompt is key because feedback loses its impact if it is delayed too long. Delayed feedback can also cause feelings of guilt and resentment in the recipient, if the opportunity for improvement has passed. Also, if your feedback is primarily negative, take time to prepare what you will say or write.

- Offer continuing support. Feedback should be a continuous process, not a one-time event. After offering feedback, make a conscious effort to follow up. Let recipients know you are available if they have questions and, if appropriate, ask for another opportunity to provide more feedback in the future.

Teaching Point 5 "� Have the cadets practice giving feedback (15 minutes):

For this TP for will give the cadets paper and pencils and allow them to work individually or in a group to come up with appropriate feedback relating to each scenario. The instructor will give suggestions as needed.

Scenario 1: You send 3 cadets to take out the gash; you come back after a few minutes to check up on their progress. You notice that 2 of the cadets are hanging out by the water cooler, and one cadet just steps back in from outside (they took out the gash) how would you provide feedback to all 3 of these cadets?

HINT: This scenario would require group feedback. The PO or Chief would explain what their observations were (because they were away for several minutes) and then ask the cadets what their story is. You give them feedback appropriate to their story, if they stood around and let one cadet do the work, you would ask them why they let the one cadet do the work and how they could improve for next time.

Scenario 2: A cadet acts up during class and it escalates to the point where it is disturbing the class. What would you do?

HINT: You explain the cadets' infraction and how to correct it for next time.

C. Practice-

Teaching Point 1 and Teaching Point 5 will allow the cadets to practice their skills.

D. Independent Practice-


E. Accommodations (Differentiated Instruction)-

Visual: Not a lot for this lesson, mostly whiteboard.

Auditory: The bulk of this lesson is auditory as they will practice feedback.

Hands-on: TP 1 & 5 will allow the cadets to try feedback.

F. Checking for understanding-

The cadets should know how to give feedback by TP 5.

G. Closure-

You now have all the skills to give feedback, I am confident that you all will be successful when giving feedback to junior cadets.
7. Evaluation-
You will use feedback throughout your cadet career.
8. Teacher Reflection-
How could you improve this lesson?

This Lesson Plan is available at (