Subject: Information and Communication
1. Topic-
2. Content-
Communication is the human, and animal ability to convey information to something (animals) or someone else, communication needs 1.a sender intended message 3.a receiver, these three elements are the fundamental elements for communication, the "communication is complete" when the receiver UNDERSTANDS the message of the sender.
People have been finding ways of how to communicate since ancient times, from sings, to speaking prehistoric languages, to paintings.
Like everything these were not enough, they weren't efficient enough so they came up with different ideas like:
They started with smoke signals (African Tribes, and Native American Tribes) which they made a fire and then they would throw branches and grass the smoke then they would throw a blanket or a type of cloth or animal skin and then they would start making smoke patterns, these were simple messages like "danger" "enemy approaching" etc. Each tribe had its own system of smoke signals so only the messenger and they receiver could understand.
Another type of early communication was the Semaphore line, this was a system of communication which was used in Europe in the 18th, and 19th century, these were huge and really fast, but at the same they were hard and expensive to operate, and also they were non-private so it was easy to know someone's message.
These were some of the most common types of prehistoric telecommunication.
But as the years passed people started to mess and experiment with electricity, and this gave birth to new, more efficient, and more complex devices.
the telegraph is now an "old" device now nobody uses it or know how to use it, but it was really useful at its time, it was like our Internet or our cellphone, it was the latest of technology.
This revolutionary device was invented by Samuel Soemmering, in 1809 (in Bavaria, Germany), he used He used 35 wires with gold electrodes in water and at the receiving end 2000 feet the message was read by the amount of gas caused by electrolysis. At the same time many other scientists, professors were also discovering this telegraph, but the raw telegraph was invented by Soemmering, then in 1835, Samuel Morse proved that signals could be transmitted by wire. He used pulses of current to deflect an electromagnet, which moved a marker to produce written codes on a strip of paper - the invention of Morse Code. From this Morse started to spread the code and the telegraph throughout the U.S.
In 1881, the Postal Telegraph System entered the field for economic reasons, and merged with Western Union in 1943.

The original Morse telegraph printed code on tape. However, in the United States the operation developed into sending by key and receiving by ear.
A good and trained Morse operator could write from 40 to 50 words a minute, this was the main form of telecommunication in the U.S., it was fast effective, and cheap, this was a really good invention, then in the 1900's a Canadian man named Frederick Creed created the Creed Telegraph System which "translated" the Morse code into written letter, and this made it even more effective, but then in 1877 the telephone came in and from then they started a battle of who would have a more user, and with time the telegraph started fade until the
telephone took over.
3. Goals: Aims/Outcomes-
1.Make students learn how a telegraph works in a fun, and creative way.
2.Make students understand why the telegraph is made the way it is made.
3.Make students know the history of how the telegraph was created and what was the way of thinking of the creators.
4. Objectives-
1.Students should be actively participating, in the activity.
2.When the teacher is explaining the lesson the students should be actively listening.
3.When the "telegraph making" activity comes along, the students should be in grouped in groups of 3 students at a table.
4.After they are in groups they should actively listen to the teacher to understand why each thing is placed in the place it should be, at the same time they should also be creating their own.
5. Materials and Aids-
Their materials to create the telegraph will be:
- two pieces of cardboard approximately 20 cm x 10 cm
- two pieces of cardboard approximately 3 cm x 8 cm
- three pieces of wire approximately 19 cm long
- three long pieces of wire (see note)
- one new "D" cell battery
- four thumbtacks
- two lights (see notes)
- wire strippers (or scissors)
- pliers
- tape
6. Procedures/Methods-

A. Introduction-

1.Greet the students.
2.Get their attention, by explain what we are doing today.
3.Start the presentation.

B. Development-

1.Give the presentation in a fun way.
2.Make students participate
3.Make students explore the prototype of the telegraph they are about to make.
4.Ask questions to students.
5.Suggest them to take notes of the presentation, but its not obligatory.

C. Practice-

1.Give them the materials to create their own telegraph.
2.Explain them how to create it, but not make it for them.
3.Be there to help them if they need assistance.
4.If they took notes, they may use them for the activity.

Checking for understanding-

1.Ask a couple of questions like "what do you all think about this topic?", "do you all feel comfortable with this topic?", and "any other questions?", and ask for feedback on how I(The teacher) did teaching the topic
2.After the day of the activity, and lecture give them a 10 question exam.
3.After the exam results, check what most of the students failed at, and explain that again.


1.Answer anymore questions.
2.Farewell the children.
7. Evaluation-
1.Give the test.
2.Ask for student feed back on test and presentation.
3.Improve from feedback results and test results.
8. Teacher Reflection-
1.Depending on the results of the exam this tells me how well I (The teacher) explained/taught the topic.
2.From those results improve my performance and create a better lesson plan.

This Lesson Plan is available at (